The massacre in Babi Yar - 33,771 victims of the "Squadrons of Death"

On September 29-30, 1941, one of the most notorious crimes of the Second World War took place in the Babi Yar gorge in the north-eastern part of Kiev. German troops of Einsatzgruppen C, specifically Sonderkommando 4a, with the support of the SD and SS Police Battalions and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police supported by the Wehrmacht, shot almost 34,000 people, mainly Jews.

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Sobibor - Nazi German extermination camp

The death camp in Sobibór (SS Sonderkommando Sobibór) - a Nazi German extermination camp established as part of Operation Reinhardt, near the village of Sobibór, near the Bug River, in the General Government. The time of mass murder covers the period from April 1942 to October 1943.

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Stutthof - The first transport of prisoners

On September 2, 1939, the first concentration camp In the current territory of the Republic of Poland, later called Konzentrationslager Stutthof, was established in Sztutowo (German: STUTTHOF), 36 km from Gdańsk. The first transport consisted of about 150 prisoners, Poles arrested on September 1, 1939.

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Treblinka railway station

Treblinka railway station - the no longer existing building of the railway station where trains stopped just before the entrance to the Treblinka II camp. Transports of Jews murdered in one of the largest German extermination camps passed through this station. Most of Jewish Warsaw ended up there, as well as transports from all over occupied Europe.

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Gas chambers in Germans Death Camps

In concentration and extermination camps, the Germans used gas chambers for mass extermination, mainly of the Jewish people, but also of Poles, Soviets, Roma, and prisoners deported from actually every occupied European country. Before the Germans started the extermination with the use of the most known agent, gas "Zyklon B", used in the camps: Auschwitz, Majdanek, Stutthof, the SS used gas chambers fueled with carbon monoxide from diesel / petrol engine exhaust.

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Maksymilian Kolbe - life for life

On August 14, 1941, Father Maksymilian Kolbe was killed in the basement of the "death block" in the German concentration camp Auschwitz. At the end of July, during the roll call, he voluntarily chose to starve to death in exchange for a convicted fellow prisoner, Franciszek Gajowniczek. Eventually, after 15 days in a cell without food or drink, he was killed with a phenol injection and his body was burnt in Crematorium No. 1.

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Hujowa Górka - place of execution in KL Plaszów

KL PLASZOW - "Hujowa Górka - one of the three execution sites located in the German concentration camp (formerly labor camp) in Krakow-Plaszow. Executions, most often by shooting, took place regularly from the summer of 1943 to the beginning of 1944.

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Deportation and death of Janusz Korczak

At the beginning of August 1942, as part of the great action "resettlement to the east", the Orphans' Home in the Warsaw Ghetto was liquidated. On August 6, 1942, about 200 children, along with their guardian, Janusz Korczak, and the employees of the Orphans' Home, were sent to death in the German extermination camp in Treblinka.

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Belzec - the first extermination camp created as part of Operation "Reinhardt"

SS Sonderkommando Belzec was the first Nazi German extermination camp established in the created as part of Operation "Reinhardt". The construction of the camp began on October 31, 1941, and the last prisoners, after covering up the traces of the crime, left the camp on June 26, 1943. Estimated number of victims: 450 000.

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Kl Lublin (Majdanek) - The Nazi German concentration and extermination camp

Majdanek, or rather KL Lublin - Nazi German concentration and extermination camp. It was the largest concentration camp (note: not the greatest extermination) in the General Government, which operated in the years 1941-1944. For less than three years of operation, at least 150,000 prisoners of various nationalities were sent to KL Lublin, of which about 78,000 died.

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Wolfsschanze - Wolf's Lair and concentration and extermination camps.

Wolf's Lair is a bunker town surrounded by forest, lakes and swamps. It is the largest and most recognizable field command headquarters of Adolf Hitler, which was in use from 1941 to 1945. Wolf's Lair is located in Gierłoż near Kętrzyn. This place is also related to the history of concentration and extermination camps.

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KL Gross-Rosen - Stone Hell

The Nazi German concentration camp Gross-Rosen was located in the administrative area of the German state (Third Reich), near the present-day village of Rogoźnica (post-war name) in the Dolnośląskie Voivodeship. As a German Nazi concentration camp, it operated in the years 1940-1945. About 125,000 prisoners passed through the camp in 5 years, of whom 40,000 are estimated to have died.

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Escape from "Eintrachthütte" (Auschwitz sub-camp)

On July 3, 1944 9 prisoners escaped from the Auschwitz sub-camp "Eintrachthütte" located in Świętochłowice through a dug tunnel. Digging of the 25-meter tunnel began on May 2. Chisels and a file smuggled out of the smelter served as tools. The entrance to the tunnel was in an unfinished barrack, where also hollow soil was scattered

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The impact of Operation Barbarossa on the emergence of mass extermination centers

On June 22, 1941, Germany and its allied states declared war on the Soviet Union. The battles on the Eastern Front, where Operation Barbarossa was carried out, were one of the most brutal and destructive battles of World War II. The launch of activities in the east was also a turning point in the Nazi plan to "solve the Jewish question."

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Plaszow (Płaszów) - concentration camp in Krakow

Plaszow (Płaszów) - Nazi German forced labor camp (German: Zwangsarbeitslager Plaszow des SS- und Polizeiführers im Distrikt Krakau) 1942-1943. In 1943 it was transformed into a concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager Plaszow bei Krakau) operating until January 1945. Estimated number of victims: 5 000 - 8 000.

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Konzentrationslager Stutthof - 2077 days of hell

Konzentrationslager Stutthof was the first and longest-existing Nazi German concentration camp in the current territory of the Republic of Poland. It was founded on September 2, 1939, near the town of Sztutowo (Stutthof) and existed as long as the war lasted - 2077 days. Its liberation took place only on May 9, 1945.

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Auschwitz Birkenau - the death factory

Auschwitz II Birkenau - in October 1941, at the behest of H. Himmler, the construction of a branch of the Auschwitz  camp (Stammlager - mother camp) began in Brzezinka (German: Birkenau), about 3 km from the main camp. The branch was called Auschwitz Birkenau, Auschwitz II or KL Birkenau.

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Treblinka II - the main German death camp as part of Operation Reinhardt

Treblinka II was the main Nazi German extermination camp in the General Government. Next to Bełżec and Sobibór, it was the third extermination center created as part of Operation Reinhard. The camp was located near the village of Treblinka, about 80 km northeast of Warsaw, on the main railway line Warsaw-Białystok.

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The death of Reinhard Heydrich - June 04, 1942

On June 4, 1942, eight days after the assassination, Reinhard Heydrich, a German Nazi in the rank of Obergruppenführer, and a police officer in the rank of general died; he was the head of the Security Service in 1932–1939, Gestapo in 1934–1939, Reich Main Security Office in 1939–1942, president of Interpol in 1940–1942, deputy protector of Bohemia and Moravia in 1941–1942. The organizer of the Wannsee conference and a Nazi criminal who was one of the most significant people co-responsible for the Holocaust.

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Auschwitz I - Nazi German concentration and extermination camp

Auschwitz / Auschwitz Birkenau - Nazi German concentration and extermination camp, founded by the SS in April 1940 in the city of Oświęcim (about 30 km from Katowice/ 70 km from Krakow). Initially, it functioned as a concentration camp for Polish prisoners - intelligentsia, enemies of the Nazi system. At its peak, Auschwitz I hosted up to 20,000 prisoners.

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Treblinka I - Nazi German labor camp

TREBLINKA I - Nazi German labor camp operating in the years 1941-1944, in the forests near the town of Treblinka (about 100 km from Warsaw). Treblinka is mainly associated with the place of mass extermination, where in the years 1942-1943, according to estimates, from 800,000 to 1 million people, mainly Jews, were murdered. Few people know, however, that from summer 1941 there was also a penal labor camp.

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SS-Sonderkommando Kulmhof - the first German Nazi extermination camp

Chełmno nad Nerem - SS-Sonderkommando Kulmhof was the first Nazi German extermination camp, created in autumn 1941 in Chełmno nad Nerem. It operated until spring 1943 and briefly in 1944/45. The main place of mass extermination of the Jewish population from the Reichsgau Wartheland and prisoners of the Łódź ghetto. The estimated number of victims is around 200,000.

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Operation Anthropoid - may 27, 1942

Operation Anthropoid - 78 years ago, the attack on Reinhard Heydrich took place. In my opinion, he was one of the most important people responsible for the Holocaust.

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"Arbeitslager Blechhammer" - Auschwitz III Monowitz

"Arbeitslager Blechhammer" was one of the oldest forced labor camps for Jews. It was situated in Sławęcice in Upper Silesia. In the period from April 1, 1944 to January 26, 1945, it was part of the Auschwitz sub-camps.

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Fort VII Konzentrationslager Posen

Fort VII in Poznań was built in the second half of the 19th century and was part of the Poznań Fortress. During the period of the Second Polish Republic, it served the Polish Army, and when Hitler's army seized Poznań, it was renamed Konzentrationslager Posen. It is worth remembering that for the first time in Poland, here in Poznań, the Germans used the name Konzentrationslager.

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Lorenz Hackenholt - "Gas Master"

Lorenz Hackenholt (born on June 25, 1914 in Gelsenkirchen, date of death unknown) - German Nazi in the rank of SS-Hauptscharführer. He was a member of the crew of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp and the Bełżec extermination camp, in which he was responsible for the operation of the gas chambers. He also designed gas chambers in the camps in Sobibór and Treblinka.

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SS Wachmannschaften torturers from the East - part 3

After the war, most SS-Wachmannschaften members were not punished for their crimes. Some emigrated to Anglo-Saxon countries (USA, Canada, Great Britain), where they blended in with the Ukrainian diaspora. Many others, especially those with German roots, lived in West Germany. A lot returned to the USSR after the war. They usually claimed to be forced laborers taken to Germany.

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May 9, 1945, Liberation of Stutthof camp

On May 9, 1945, the Stutthof concentration and extermination camp was "liberated". The camp was founded on September 2, 1939, the day after the outbreak of war. Nazi leaders from Pomerania imprisoned and killed many people of Polish nationality in Stutthof, according to plans created years before the war, in which the Germans assumed to Germanize the Pomeranian region.

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Amon Göth - "here comes Death ..."

Amon Göth (born on December 11, 1908 in Vienna, executed on September 13, 1946 in Krakow) - Austrian war criminal, Hauptsturmführer SS, during World War II the commandant of the Płaszow concentration camp and liquidator of the Jewish ghettos in Kraków and Tarnów.

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Death of the Goebbels family - May 1, 1945

Exactly 75 years ago, on May 1, 1945, Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magdalena took their lives, also killing six of their children, whose names began with the letter H, in honor of Adolf Hitler.

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Soviet soldiers in Ravensbrück 1945-1993

An article about the camps written by a special guest will be published from time to time. Today my special guest is my dear friend Joanna Czopowicz, (ssaufseherin.blogspot.com) who will tell us the story of Soviet soldiers in Ravensbrück between 1945-1993 on the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Ravensbrück camp.

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SS Wachmannschaften torturers from the East - part 2

The SS-Wachmannschaften, informally called Trawnikimänner, in addition to their service as part of Operation Reinhard, also took part in the liquidation of ghettos and mass executions, and also served in concentration and labor camps.

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Rudolf Spanner - "Soap" from people?

Rudolf Maria Spanner (born April 17, 1895 in Metternich, died August 31, 1960 in Cologne) - member of the NSDAP, pathologist and professor of medicine in Gdańsk, at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Academy, associated with the very controversial issue of "human soap".

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SS Wachmannschaften, torturers from the East

The “Wachmannschaften des SS- und Polizeiführers in Distrikt Lublin”, informally called Trawnikimänner (as well as Askarysi, Hiwis), was a collaborative formation from World War II. It included Soviet prisoners of war and civilians who had been transferred to the German army and underwent training in the SS camp in Trawniki.

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KL Gross-Rosen - interesting places

KL Gross-Rosen was located in the administrative area of the German state (Third Reich), near the present-day village of Rogoźnica (post-war name) in the Dolnośląskie Voivodeship. It operated in the years 1940-1945. 125,000 prisoners passed through the camp over the period of 5 years. 40,000 are estimated to have died. The camp had about 120 sub-camps. A large quarry operated in the vicinity of the camp, in which prisoners worked in inhuman conditions.

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Stanisława Leszczyńska - "Mother"

Stanisława Leszczyńska (born on May 8, 1896 in Łódź, died on March 11, 1974 in Łódź) – a Polish midwife imprisoned in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, a volunteer called "Mother" and the Handmaid of the Catholic Church.

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April 11, 1961 - the trial of Adolf Eichmann

55 years ago, on April 11, 1961, the trial of Adolf Eichmann began in Jerusalem. He was the head of the Jewish department at the Reich Main Security Office, "the murderer from behind the desk," responsible for the death of millions of Jews.

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Joseph Mengele - "Angel of Death" from Auschwitz

Josef Mengele (born on March 16, 1911 in Günzburg, deceased on February 7, 1979 in Bertioga, Brazil), a German scientist and doctor, an SS officer. He is best known for his service in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp as the "Angel of Death".

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The Gleiwitz incident - events from 31.08.1939

Yesterday we were in the vicinity of the highest wooden broadcasting tower in the world, located in Gliwice and being a witness to an important historical event, the Gleiwitz incident.

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Rudolf Höß - commandant of Auschwitz

Rudolf Höß (Höss, Hoess) - the first commandant and founder of the Auschwitz camp, was sentenced to death. The sentence was carried out on April 16, 1947 by hanging in the Auschwitz camp, next to the building of the former headquarters and crematorium.

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Belzec - silent death sentence

Of the first three extermination camps created as part of the "Reinhardt" campaign, Belżec was the only one in which no armed rebellion or uprising took place. Moreover, very few people tried to escape.

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Judenrampe - it ends here ......

Judenrampe – the place where trains with deported prisoners destined for Auschwitz stopped, active in the years 1942-1944. Although the ramp was quite an important place for the extermination machine, it is a "forgotten" and rarely visited place.

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Odilo Globocnik - "Death Manager"

Odilo Lotario Globocnik (born 21.04.1904, died 31.05.1945) – an Austrian Nazi, high rank SS and NSDAP officer. A war criminal, one of the main organizers and executors of the extermination of Jews as part of the Reinhardt opetation.

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Saved from hell - history of three prisoners from Kulmhof

Szymon Srebrnik, Mordechaj Żurawski, and Mordechaj Podchlebnik were three prisoners of the German extermination camp in Chełmno nad Nerem who survived the camp. It is estimated that 150,000 to 250,000 people died in the camp and only 7 survived!

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Mistakes in movies - why reading matters...

There is lot of movies about World War II, the Third Reich and the Holocaust. Unfortunately, they often have factual and historical errors which are not always caused by ignorance or neglect. Below, I will cite two films on various subjects, produced in different countries.

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“Lazaret”, the infirmary of death

“Lazaret”, a fake infirmary, was a place of execution in the Treblinka II extermination camp, which at first glance looked like a field hospital on the outside. People who could not reach the gas chambers on their own, as well as prisoners unable to work or sentenced to death for various offenses, were directed to the so-called "Lazaret", which literally means “infirmary”.

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I.G. Farbenindustrie - money in the shadow of death...

I. G. Farbenindustrie - a German chemical company founded in 1925, dissolved in 2012. During World War II, it was notorious because of its close cooperation with the SS, as well as the production of cyclone B and other chemicals.

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The introduction of evil - The Thule Society

The Thule Society was a secret racist and occult organization that was founded in Munich at the turn of 1917 and 1918. Its members, Karl Harrer and Anton Drexler, founded the German Workers' Party, later renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP).

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Eichmann – coordinator of the final solution

Adolf Eichmann (born March 19, 1906 in Solingen, died May 31, 1962 in Ramla) - SS officer in the rank of lieutenant colonel of Austrian origin, one of the key figures of the "Final Solution" and one of the main coordinators of Operation Reinhardt.

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Dachau camp - "Death’s training ground"

The Dachau camp was the first concentration camp established by the Germans after Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP rose to power. It was founded by order of H. Himmler in the spring of 1933, in Dachau near Munich. The main purpose of the camp was to isolate political opponents of the Nazi regime, clergy and Jews. It became a "model" for all other camps. From 1938, the camp was a kind of "training ground" for managers and watchmen of other facilities of this kind founded later.

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Klaus Barbie – the butcher of lyon

Nikolaus “Klaus” Barbie (born on 25.10.1913, deceased on 25.09.1991) – also known as the “Butcher of Lyon”, head of the Gestapo in Lyon and officer in the SS-Hauptsturmführer rank, responsible for deportation of 7,500 Jews to extermination camps and directly responsible for about 4,300 deaths.

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Rebellion In Sobibor – assault on Immortality

Rebellion in Sobibor - October 14, 1943, an armed uprising of Sonderkommando prisoners took place, whose goal was to escape from the camp and save themselves from death. In the extermination camps, apart from SS supervisors and Ukrainian watchmen, a small number of prisoners were selected from transports to serve the "extermination machine".

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Irma Grese – the beauty and the beast

Irma Grese (born on October 7, 1923 in Wrechen, Mecklenburg, died on December 13, 1945 in Hamelin), best known as a supervisor (SS-Aufseherin) in German concentration camps and a member of the SS support staff. One of the most cruel, ruthless and bestial overseers in the camps.

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Block 11 – where the devil dwelled

Block 11 is one of the buildings located at the Auschwitz I camp. It is referred to as the "death block". First, it was marked as block number 13, later renamed to 11. The building housed the camp Gestapo headquarters and the arrest for prisoners suspected of, among others, activity in the resistance movement, contacts with civilians or an attempt to escape.

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Action 1005 – destroying evidence of crime

Action 1005 – the codename of the action carried out by the Nazis during World War II, aimed at destroying evidence of crimes committed by SS/WH/SD troops in Central and Eastern Europe. Before crematoria, grates for burning corpses and pits appeared in the camps, the Nazis buried the bodies in the ground.

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Einsatzgruppen - Hitler's Death Squadrons

A question may arise: why were extermination camps created? What forced Nazi authorities to take action in order to create mass extermination centers? One of the reasons was, among others, the activity of Einsatzgruppen (units separated from SIPO and SD), i.e. special operational groups moving behind the front line.

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Franz Stangl - Commander of death camps

Franz Stangl (born on March 26, 1908 in Altmünster, died on June 28, 1971 in Düsseldorf) – SS man with the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer of Austrian origin. Commander of the death camps in Sobibór and Treblinka. "White Death", as prisoners called him, was also a veteran of Action T4 mentioned in previous posts.

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I recommend the movie "The Grey Zone"

I recommend the movie "The Grey Zone". It tells the story of the armed uprising of the twelfth Sonderkomando in the Fourth Crematorium which took place on October 7, 1944 (exactly on H. Himmler's birthday). I will not summarize it, paying more attention to two important people who appear in this film, namely: Erich Muhsfeldt and Miklós Nyiszli.

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A unique photo from Höcker’s album

Below I would like to show you a unique photo from the so-called "Höcker's album", in which we see Richard Baer (the first on the left), ​​the last commandant of Auschwitz.The photo was taken shortly after he took up this position.

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Exhaust gas chambers

Before the Germans began the extermination with the agent known as Zyklon B, they used gas chambers powered by carbon monoxide from the exhaust of a diesel / petrol engine. The procedure took place as part of the "Einsatz Reinhardt" campaign and the resolutions that were made at the Wansee conference.

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Reinhard Heydrich - "Holocaust Architect"

Reinhard Heydrich (born March 7, 1904 in Halle, died June 4, 1942 in Prague) - Obergruppenführer SS, one of Adolf Hitler’s most trusted and ruthless people. Founder of SD (SS intelligence) and Einsatzgruppen.

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